For optimal skeletal health, both Vitamin D& Calcium play a vital role. Vitamin D triggers calcium homeostasis. Low bone mass, osteoporosis, high fracture rates are some of the consequences of calcium and Vitamin D deficiency. The main source of Vitamin D is sunlight and that of calcium is dairy products.
Table of Contents
Metabolism of Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a combined form of Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2) and Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3). Irradiated yeast and fungiareVitamin D2 sources. Vitamin D3 is produced in the skin and can be derived from food sources as well.
When our skin is directly exposed to ultraviolet B radiation within a wavelength of 290 to 315 nm, it converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre-vitamin D3. Skin color, sunscreen products, age, latitude, season, and time are some factors affecting the natural method of Vitamin D3formulation.
Both the forms of Vitamin D get bonded with a Vitamin D-binding protein. This is transported in the liver and kidney, which is absorbed in the nucleus and Vitamin D-dependent genes. (1)
Metabolism of Calcium
Vitamin D optimizes calcium and phosphorus absorption in the body for the composition of the bone mineral matrix. Across the intestine, there is a transcellular and paracellular pathway, through which the calcium is transported. There are many calcium sources, where the body derives the required amount of this micronutrient, however, excessive intake may result inside effects. (2)
Role of Vitamin D
The only role of Vitamin D is to absorb calcium and phosphorus from different sources and thus, maintain skeletal health. Without enough Vitamin D, hormone calcitriol is not produced. In such a situation, the body suffers from calcium deficiency. This ceases the formation of new bones and makes existing bones feeble.
Role of Calcium
One must consume calcium-rich foods to maintain the optimal health of the bones. Furthermore, Calcium is also required for: (3)
- Latent tetany or muscle cramps
- Reduce hyperparathyroidism
- Maintain the premenstrual syndrome
Sources of Vitamin D
Some major Vitamin D rich foods are as follows:
- Fatty fishes like mackerel, salmon, herring, and sardines
- Egg yolk
- Breakfast cereals and other fortified foods
- Dietary supplements
Vitamin D from sunlight is the major and natural source.
Sources of Calcium
Dairy products are a major source of Calcium. Other sources are:
- Green leafy vegetables
- Soya milk or any soy-based drinks
- Fortified flour made foods
- Fish with consumable bones such as pilchards and sardines (4)
Calcium tablets for kids and adults are available, which can be taken with a doctor’s advice.
How Much Calcium & Vitamin D Should One Intake?
National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends the following details of Calcium intake. The chart mentioned below also states the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding intake of Vitamin D. (5)
|Age Group||Calcium (Daily)||Vitamin D (Daily)|
|1 – 3 years||500 mg||400 IU|
|4 – 8 years||800 mg||400 IU|
|9 – 18 years||1,300 mg||400 IU|
|19 – 49 years||1,000 mg||400-800 IU|
|50+ years||1,200 mg||800-1000 IU|
|Pregnant & Nursing Women of age above 19 years||1,000 mg||400-800 IU|
Symptoms of Calcium & Vitamin D Deficiency
Some common vitamin D &calcium deficiency symptoms are:
- Pain in bones and muscles
- Degrading teeth structure
- Back and shoulder pain
- Impaired healing of wounds or infection
- Bone and hair loss (6)
Anzen Exports in Supplying of Calcium & Vitamin D Extracts
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Website – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2669834/
Website – https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-781/calcium
- Endocrine Web
Website – https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/osteoporosis/role-calcium-vitamin-d-bone-health
Website – https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vitamins-and-minerals/calcium/
- Endocrine Web
Website – https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vitamin-d-deficiency-symptoms