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Timolol Maleate: the mainstay of glaucoma treatment | Anzen Exports

July 13, 2021by Anzen_Exports0

Originating from the family of non-selective beta-adrenergic blockers, Timolol Maleate is usually used as an eye drop to reduce intraocular pressure (pressure in the eyes) for controlling ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. It is sometimes used in tablet form for treating blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac output of the body. In certain cases, it is also used to prevent migraine headaches. This powerful drug was approved by the FDA in 1978. (1)

Mechanism of action

Critical conditions like chronic open-angle glaucoma result in damage to the optic nerve at the back of the eye. The underlying cause is high pressure in the eyes. If left untreated, it can gradually even lead to complete blindness. Eye drops or gel-forming solutions (a liquid that thickens into a gel-form when introduced to the eye) containing Timolol Maleate, usually instilled once or twice a day at regular intervals, are effective in lowering this eye pressure. This beta-blocker achieves this by reducing the Aqueous Humour (the fluid that fills the front portion of the eyes). (2)

Timolol ophthalmic solution can be used alone or in conjunction with other medications like bimatoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost or brimonidine for the successful treatment of glaucoma. (2)


Although it has proved its efficacy for treating glaucoma, a few precautions must be adhered to before using timolol-based eye drops. The patient must apprise the concerned doctor in case of the following conditions: (2)

  • If they have asthma or any other breathing complications.
  • If they have a heart condition
  • If they are pregnant or lactating
  • Suffering from Raynaud’s Syndrome or low blood pressure
  • Under medication for diabetes or thyroid problems
  • In case they wear soft contact lenses
  • In case of any impending surgery, including dental ones
  • A history of allergic reactions to certain medicines
  • All other medicines that are being consumed to avoid harmful interactions
  • Any other eye-related problem
  • The usage must not be stopped without consulting the doctor

Side effects

Timolol, as a drug, comes with its own share of side effects. Some of them include: (3, 4)

  • Temporary blurry vision
  • Stinging, redness or dryness of the eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Pain in the eyes
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Irregular or slow heartbeat
  • Muscle weakness
  • Numbness in the hands or feet
  • Fluctuations in mood and depression
  • Sudden weight gain
  • Rashes, itching or swelling of the face, tongue or throat
  • Difficulty in breathing

Prioritizing the needs of patients

One of the pioneers in the pharmaceutical industry in India, Anzen Exports is renowned for manufacturing high quality Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, herbal extracts, nutraceutical ingredients as well as cosmetic ingredients. The organization is committed to answering the needs of patients across a broad range of medical conditions.

For over three decades now, the company has been instrumental in introducing high-quality products as well as services in pursuit of its mission to save and improve lives. Scientific excellence, the highest standards of integrity and a diverse workforce that values collaboration are the cornerstones of the success of this dynamic brand.

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Anzen Export’s blog posts have been written with the information gathered from approved medical journals and websites online. Our research and technical team strive to provide relevant information through such articles. To be best informed, we advise consulting a doctor about an ingredient or medicine prior to taking it.


    1. Drugbank [online] Available at:
    2. Patient [online] Available at:
    3. WebMD [online] Available at:
    4. MedlinePlus [online] Available at:

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